Civilian CPR - Child

When dealing with a child (age 1 - 8) the approach to the patient is the same, but the order of assessment is different. The rescuer must first establish unresponsiveness and provide five (5) cycles of CPR before activating the EMS system and/or applying an AED. The ABC's of CPR are the same for this child as they were for the adult. The rate of ventilation for a child is a little faster at fifteen (15) time a minute (once every four [4] seconds,) and the compression to ventilation ratio during CPR is thirty (30) compression to two (2) ventilation at a rate that is approximately 100 times a minute. The anterior chest wall (breastbone) must be displaced 1 - 1 inches in order to "squeeze" the heart between it and the spinal column (backbone.) Because this "child" is smaller than the adult, the rescuer will use only one hand to compress the chest. The heal of that hand should be placed on the sternum, generally between the nipples, or where the rescuer would expect to "find" the heart. The recovery position would also be used for this patient, in the event that he/she was breathing adequately, but had not yet regained consciousness.

Civilian CPR - Baby

Civilian CPR - Baby

When dealing with a baby (under 1 year of age) the "assessment skills" of the rescuer need to be very sharp. This patient is unable to answer any questions, and may not appear as sick, or distressed as patients that are over a year old, even when involved in a "full-blown" emergency. And so, the "approach" to this patient will be one of intense observation, looking for signs of life. Don't forget to activate the EMS system, but, if you are alone (as with the 'child,') provide five (5) cycles of CPR, before going to call for help. (Currently there is not enough evidence to recommend for or against the use of AEDs in infants less than one (1) year old.) The ventilation rate for this baby is even faster yet, at about 20 times a minute or once every 3 seconds, and the compression to ventilation ratio is the same as the child at 30 to 2, at a rate of about 100 times per minute (120 if the baby is a "newborn.") The chest of the infant should be displaced - 1 inch using two fingers placed on the baby's sternum approximately one finger width below an imaginary line drawn between the nipples. Babies are probably the most intimidating of all patients. Baby CPR is by far the most frightening of all the CPR procedures. But, take heart, the "universe" for this patient group is patients under 1 year of age and that represents a small segment of our society and hence, minimizes the probability that you will actually encounter a patient in this age group. If you do encounter a "baby" patient, and can't remember what to do, just remember the concepts offered in "The Simple View," and that should help refresh your memory regarding the Baby CPR.

If you are going to read through the "Professional" section, have at it. If not, however, there is a "final note" at the bottom of this page that you should have a look at.